The history of the camera and photography
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Today we cannot imagine our life without photographs
They surround us all the time. Taking a photo is an elementary task for a modern person. But once they could only dream of it. Let's find out what the history of the camera was, from the earliest ideas of engineers to modern technologies. Man has always been attracted to beauty. One day he wanted to describe it, shape it. In poetry, the beautiful has taken the form of words, in music - sound and in painting - images. The only thing that a person could not capture is an instant. For example, catch sky-splitting thunderstorms or a crash. With the advent of the camera, this and much more became possible. The history of camera development includes many attempted inventions of image recording devices. It begins a long time ago, when, when studying the optics of light refraction, mathematicians noticed that an image can be flipped by passing it through a small hole into a dark room. Let's consider the most significant events that influenced the history of the camera.
Kepler's Laws Do you know when the history of the camera began? The first technologies that were later used to create photographs appeared in 1604, when Johannes Kepler, a German astronomer, established the laws of the reflection of light in a mirror. Later, the lens theory was based on them, according to which Galileo Galilei, an Italian physicist, created the world's first telescope to observe celestial bodies. The principle of refraction of rays has been established and studied. It remains to learn how to record the resulting image on paper.
Discovery of Niepce Almost two centuries later, in the 1920s, French inventor Joseph Nicephore Niepce discovered a way to record an image. Many believe that it was from this moment that the story of the appearance of the camera began. The essence of the method consisted in processing the incident light with asphalt varnish and keeping it on the surface of the glass. This varnish represented something similar to modern bitumen, and the glass was called a darkroom. With this method, the image took shape and became visible. This was the first time in history that an image was not drawn by an artist, but by refracted rays of light.
Talbot's new image quality
By studying Niepce's camera obscura, the English physicist William Talbot improved the image quality with the help of a negative, which he invented to print a photograph. It happened in 1835. This discovery made it possible not only to take photographs of a new quality, but also to copy them. In the first photo of him, Talbot captured the window of his house. The image clearly conveys the outline of the window and frame. In his report, written a little later, Talbot called photography the world of beauty. It was he who laid the foundation for the principle that has been used to print photographs for many years.
"Kodak"
Today's popular brand "Kodak" was first unveiled in 1889, when George Eastman patented the first roll of photographic film and later a camera designed specifically for this film. As a result, a large corporation "Kodak" appeared. It is interesting to note that the name "Kodak" has no semantic meaning. Eastman just wanted to think of a word that starts and ends with the same letter. Photographic plates In 1904, the Lumiere brand launched the production of plates for color photographs. They became the prototype of modern photography. Leica cameras In 1923, a camera appeared that worked with 35mm film. Now you can view the negatives and choose the best ones to print. Two years later, Leica cameras went into mass production. In 1935, the Leica 2 appeared, which was equipped with a viewfinder, a powerful focus, and could combine two images into one. And the Leica 3 version also allows you to adjust the exposure time. Leica models have long been an integral part of photographic art.
Photo camera "Polaroid" In 1963, the history of the camera received a new vector. The Polaroid camera has revolutionized the concept of fast photo printing. The camera allowed the photo to print immediately after it was taken. You just had to press a button and wait a couple of minutes. During this time, the camera traced the contours of the image on a clean print and then the full color gamut. Over the next 30 years, Polaroid cameras have secured a leading position in the market. The decline in popularity of these models began only in the years when the era of digital photography was born. In the 1970s, cameras began to be equipped with exposure meters, autofocus, built-in flash, and automatic shooting modes. In the 80s, some models were already equipped with liquid crystal displays, in which the settings and modes of the device were displayed. The history of the digital camera began around the same time.
The Samsung and Sony corporations of the 2000s
Which are developing on the basis of digital technologies, have absorbed most of the digital camera market. Amateur models have pushed the limit of 3 megapixel resolution and started to compete with professional technology in terms of matrix size. Despite the rapid development of digital technologies - face and smile detection in the frame, red-eye removal, multi-zoom and other functions - the price of photographic equipment is falling rapidly. Telephones equipped with cameras and digital zooms began to resist cameras. Filming devices no longer interest anyone, and analog photographs have come to be appreciated as a rarity. How does a camera work? Now you and I know what stages the history of the camera consisted of. Having briefly examined it, let's get to know the camera device more closely
A film camera works in the following way: when passing through the diaphragm of the lens, light reacts with a film coated with chemical elements and is stored in it. The body does not transmit light, as does the film holder cover. On a movie channel, the movie is rewound after each shot. The lens consists of several lenses that allow you to change the focus. In a professional lens, in addition to lenses, mirrors are also installed. The brightness of the optical image is controlled by the iris. The shutter opens the shutter covering the film. The length of time the shutter stays open affects the exposure of the photo. When the subject is poorly lit, the flash is used. It consists of a gas discharge lamp, when it is instantly discharged, it is possible to get a light that is brighter than the light of a thousand candles.
A digital camera in the stage of passing light through a lens works in the same way as a film camera. But after the image is refracted through the optical system, it becomes digital information on the matrix. The quality of the image depends on the resolution of the matrix. After that, the recoded image is stored digitally on the storage medium. The body of such a camera is similar to a film camera, but lacks a film channel and a place for a roll of film. In this sense, the dimensions of a digital camera are much smaller. A familiar attribute to modern digital models is the LCD screen. On the one hand, it serves as a viewfinder, and on the other hand, it allows easy menu navigation and viewing the focus result.
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